Long before the common, every-man began gardening, there were the stiff and manicured estate gardens–the gardens intended for a show of lavish wealth. When the commoners began gardening, however, they did so simply to provide food and medicines for themselves. Some of the medicinal plants were flowering herbs, and other flowers were introduced into the small garden plots later.
The European peasants who initially began planting the small kitchen gardens had very small plots and in order to increase their growing areas, they used trellises, supports, or fences. The trellises in the pictures above are in the heirloom garden at the Cloisters in New York City.
The picture above is another kind of trellis that is also in the Cloisters garden. The weaving that holds these trellises together is called wattling. Heirloom gardens also employed wattle fences.
The following free garden plan from Better Homes & Gardens uses heritage plants that one might have found in the older, more historical gardens, and it also uses trellises or wattles to increase the growing area and yield.